SUSAN FRYE   / / BA . MFC . PhD Candidate

Susan is a PhD Candidate at the University of Toronto in the Faculty of Forestry. She holds a Bachelor of Arts (BA Hons.) with a specialization in urban studies from York University. Following this, she gained a Masters of Forestry Conservation (MFC) from the University of Toronto. Susan is a member of the Canadian Insitute of Forestry, the Society for Conservation Biology, the Entomological Society of Ontario, the Toronto Entomologists Association, Entomological Society of America, and the Entomological Society of Canada. 

Susan has practiced in the field with experimental design and set-up, data collection, as well as laboratory experiments, writing grant proposals, running statistical analyses, and writing manuscripts. Her current work focuses on the natural history and biology of pollinators in temperate forest landscapes (see current projects below). 

She also has teaching experience that includes developing undergraduate assignments, labs, and tutorials. Further to this, she's involved with a number of community outreach programs. Specifically, the native bee monitoring club at the High Park Nature Centre, pollinator education workshops at Access Alliance, monitoring pollinator houses and the Toronto Regional Conservation Authority (TRCA). She also offers pollinator walks at the TRCA's annual Butterfly Festival at Tommy Thompson Park in Toronto, Ontario. 


Vertical stratification of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in temperate forest canopies

The short term effects of introduced honey bees on native bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in a mixed-woods, deciduous forest

Differential use of tree canopies by bees in a northern hardwood forest

This project examines the distribution of bees between ground and the forest canopy. Although several studies have shown that canopy arthropod communities are distinct, none have looked at how functional diversity predicts bee strata use. Functional diversity is not only essential for healthy functioning ecosystems, but it could also explain community composition and distribution. 
Here I focus on the arrangement of honeydew-producing Sternorrhyncha in tree canopies and examine how pollinators respond to honeydew as an alternative to floral nectar. This project looks at differences in honeydew-producing scale and mealybug abundance amongst different canopy heights and between tree sizes. Identifying the distribution of honeydew-producing insects will determine the potential for non-floral carbohydrate resources for bees in temperate canopies.
This project investigates whether Eurasian honeybees influence the functional diversity and reproductive ability of native stem-nesting bees. Honeybees have the potential to impact the native stem-nesting bees, however, there are currently no studies that have looked at this interaction in North American temperate forests.